*Plan is to double the national average yield of cassava
By Debo Adeoye, Ibadan
There will be no basis for the over 4.5million cassava farmers in Nigeria to worry about weeds or the weeding process in their farms again. The International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) just made a breakthrough to save you the stress.
The root crop is a money spinner. It has huge demand for domestic and industrial purposes. Cassava is processed to starch, ethanol, flour and gari—a staple food. Other uses include local cassava meals like akpu and lafun. In some communities, the root is simply boiled and eaten.
Keeping a cassava farm free of weeds used to be a major challenge. Weeds reduces yield, increases labour cost and discourages many who go into it as a venture outside their paid employments. All these burdens seems to be a thing of the past with the new breakthrough of the research agency.
Ordinarily, weeding is recommended at 4 to 5 weeks after planting and at 8 weeks after planting until crop ground-cover is complete.
How the research yielded result: The Cassava Weed Management Project (CWMP) research by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) which started four years ago, produced a healthy cassava farm land that has not been weeded at 10 weeks!
IITA-CWMP demo plot in Ijaiye, Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo state, has exhibited how the major research feat was achieved.
The research focuses on intercropping, tillage research and integrated weed management practices, including the use of herbicides that meet globally accepted standards.
A small farm of 12,500 cassava plants intercropped with maize. The plant is currently 10 weeks old and there had been no weeding by hand or hoe.
Prof. Friday Ekeleme is the Principal Investigator of the project. He explained that the feat was achieved by following proper field preparation techniques and use of pre-emergence herbicides at the time of planting.
Some proper field preparation measures, according to him, include crop spacing at 1metre by 0.8metre and soil tillage.
He said that the application of an experimental pre-emergence herbicide known as Fierce, was done with the intention of applying a post-emergence herbicide later, but at 10 weeks, the plot is still without weeds and looking as if there won’t be need for the post-emergence herbicide.
Prof. Ekeleme explained further that the observation is a major breakthrough in the fight against weeds in cassava cropping. He said that the pre-emeergence herbicide was a major factor.
Use of herbicides in cassava cultivation: In Nigeria, the primary herbicides used are atrazine, metalachlor, glyphosate and paraquat. Within the farming community, less than 50% of them use herbicides routinely, instead they manage weeds by hand hoeing.
The use of the herbicides mentioned above have not eradicated the weed challenge in the country, hence the need for more improved ones like the experimental one being used by IITA. This opens a new opportunity for chemical companies.
Prof Ekeleme said IITA was working with several chemical companies who provided samples of herbicides for testing.
By 2018 we would populate the result: He promised that by the middle of 2018, a lot of grounds would have been covered to see the introduction of the improved herbicide to farmers. Part of the grounds that need to be covered are involving stakeholders and getting government approvals and registration for the herbicide which has been tested to verify its environmental friendliness and consumption safety levels.
The IITA-CWMP is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation with collaboration with Nigerian government institutions. The aim of the project is to develop integrated weed management techniques that involve the systematic screening of new potential herbicides and testing of mechanical weed management techniques.
In a statement by Godwin Atser, Communication and Knowledge and Exchange expert for the project, the IITA, “working with a coalition of partners including the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, University of Agriculture Makurdi, the National Root Crops Research Institute, and extension partners; the team set up trials in the three agroecological zones of the country including the humid forest, derived savannah and the southern guinea savannah. These trials led to the selection of safe and environmentally friendly herbicides with other agronomic practices that formed the package that was used in setting up the demos in Ogun and other states of Nigeria (Abia, Benue, and Oyo). Results from the other states are also being compiled for analysis”.
Prof. Ekeleme said the results gotten so far indicated that the project was achieving one of its major objectives, which is to double the national average yield of cassava, generate wealth, and reduce the burden of weeding in cassava farming systems.